Ni ubuhe buryo bugezweho bwa lithium yo hagati no hepfo munsi yibiciro byibikoresho fatizo?

Ku ya 10 Werurweth2022, impuzandengo yikigereranyo cya batiri yo mu rwego rwa lithium karubone yamenetse neza 500.000 yuan / toni, ikuraho 500.000 yuan / toni kunshuro yambere.Litiyumu y'ibyuma iri muminsi ibiri ikurikiranye yazamutseho 100.000 yuan / toni, ubu igiciro cyo hagati cyarenze miliyoni 3.1.Kandi igiciro cya batiri ya lithium hydroxide yagiye inyuma ya karubone ya lithium mbere yuko itandukaniro ryibiciro biheruka hagati ya karubone ya lithium na hydroxide na lithium naryo rigabanuka cyane, ukurikije uko hydroxide ya lithium ikiri nke ubu, ibintu bizaza birashobora gukomeza.

raw materials1

Kandi izamuka ryihuse ryibiciro bya nikel rimwe ritera inganda kuri bateri nimodoka zamashanyarazi nibindi biciro byo kuganira.Noneho murwego rwo hejuru ibiciro byibikoresho byihuta byiyongera kurubu, urunani rwa lithium yinganda zo hagati no hagati yibasiwe niki?Ukurikije ubushakashatsi nubwoko bwose bwamakuru kumasoko, kwishyira hamwe kwanyuma nibi bikurikira:

Ukurikije ibiciro bya SMM, kuva mu gihembwe cya kane cya 2020, ibiciro bya batiri yo mu gihugu lithium karubone yibiciro byatangiye gukomeza kwiyongera, kandi ibi ntibishobora gutandukana no kubura lithium yo hejuru yimbere idafite ibikoresho byuma.Ishyirahamwe ry’inganda zitagira ferro mu Bushinwa rivuga ko Ubushinwa buzakenera kwinjiza 65 ku ijana by'ibikoresho fatizo bya lithium mu 2021.Kubera iyo mpamvu, hamwe n’ubwiyongere bukabije bw’ibinyabiziga bishya by’ingufu ku isi ndetse no kubika ingufu, nk’umusaruro munini ku isi ukora umunyu wa lithium na batiri ya lithium, ukuvuguruzanya hagati yo gutanga no gukenera umutungo wa lithium mu Bushinwa byagiye byiyongera.

Muri iki gihe, ibigo byo hejuru byanyuze mumiterere ya minisiteri ya lithium kugirango ihagarike itangwa ryibikoresho fatizo.Fata amakuru muminsi yashize nk'urugero, Zangge Mining yamenyesheje gahunda yimyaka 5 yiterambere ryiterambere, icyiciro cya mbere (2022-2024) mugihugu cyose, umusaruro wa karubone ya lithium ya qarhan Salt Lake ikomeza kuba ihamye;Umushinga wa Mamicuo Salt Lake Lithium washyizwe mubikorwa.Iterambere ryakozwe mu gushaka imishinga mishya, kandi hiyongereyeho umushinga wa 1 cyangwa 2 mushya wumunyu wa Lithium hamwe na toni miliyoni imwe yububiko bwa karubone ya lithium.Icyiciro cya kabiri (2025-2027) cyo kujya kwisi yose, komeza utezimbere byimazeyo umutungo wamabuye y'agaciro, ibipimo nyamukuru byubukungu ninyungu za miliyari icumi, ahanini bigera kurwego rwitsinda ryambere ryubucukuzi bwambere;Qarhan Salt Lake lithium carbone umusaruro wagumye uhagaze;Umushinga wa Litiyumu wikiyaga cyumunyu wa Mamicuo uhagaze neza mubikorwa kandi waguka muguhitamo amahirwe;Ikirombe gishya cyumunyu wa lithium.

Ganfeng Lithium yabanje kuvuga ko ubushobozi bwumushinga wa Mt Marion spodumene buzamurwa kandi bugurwa.Umushinga wo kwagura uteganijwe mbere yuko ushyirwa mubikorwa mugice cya kabiri cya 2022, kandi ubushobozi bwumwimerere biteganijwe ko uziyongera 10-15%.Mubyongeyeho, ubushobozi bwo guhuza amabuye y'agaciro bizongerwaho, biteganijwe ko byiyongeraho 10-15%.Igipimo cyihariye cyo kwaguka gishingiye kubikorwa byo gutezimbere hamwe nuburyo nyabwo bwo guhuza amabuye.

Byongeye kandi, nk'uko abari mu kigo babitangaza, umushinga wa Cauchari-Olaroz Salt Lake wo muri Arijantine urateganya gushyira toni 40.000 za litiro ya karubone yo mu rwego rwa batiri mu gice cya kabiri cya 2022. Hagati aho, icyiciro cya kane cy’uruganda rwa Mahon kiri mbere yigihe giteganijwe, cyangwa izashyirwa mubikorwa muri Nyakanga.Ibicuruzwa byabugenewe bizahuza cyane cyane ubushobozi bwa lithium hydroxide.Byongeye kandi, umushinga wa Marina wa Ganfeng Lithium muri Arijantine na Sonora umushinga wa Mexico nawo urimo kubakwa kandi uzashyirwa mu bikorwa mu 2023.

Jiang Weiping, umuyobozi wa Tianqi Lithium na Ganfeng Lithium, bita “double lithium”, na we yatanze ibitekerezo byihutisha iterambere ry’icyatsi cya sichuan lithium ku nama zombi uyu mwaka.Jiang Weiping yizera ko, kuri ubu, ibihugu bikomeye ku isi byamenye akamaro k’umutungo wa lithium, Chili, Boliviya, Mexico ndetse n’ibindi bihugu byashyize ku rutonde umutungo wa lithium nk’ibikorwa by’igihugu nka peteroli, iterambere no gukoresha umutungo wa lithium biragenda bikomera. kugenzura.Kubwibyo, kwihutisha iterambere ryicyatsi kandi cyiza cyumutungo wa Litiyumu mubushinwa ningirakamaro muburyo bwo gutanga isoko ryiterambere rya lithium.

Ntabwo aribyo gusa, Jiang Weiping no ku mutungo wa lithium uriho ubu, yavuze ko, nk'uko imibare ya Minisiteri y’umutungo kamere ibigaragaza, ubutare bwa Litiyumu ikomeye ya Sichuan bugizwe na 57% by’ubutare bw’igihugu cya lithium, biza ku mwanya wa mbere mu gihugu.Nububiko bwa microcrystalline spodumene nini mubushinwa, ububiko bwa Jika muri perefegitura ya Ganzi, intara ya Sichuan bufite ububiko bunini kandi bwo mu rwego rwo hejuru umutungo wa lithium, hamwe na toni 1.887.700.Ibigega byagaragaye ko bifite lithium mu birombe bya Lijiagou spodumene mu Ntara ya Jinchuan, Perefegitura Aba, intara ya Sichuan ni toni zigera kuri 512.100, naho umutungo wa lithium mu gace ka Szemuzu ni hafi toni 520.000.

Hamwe n'izamuka ryihuse ry'ibiciro fatizo, inganda nyinshi za lithium zinjiye mu bucukuzi bw'amabuye y'agaciro hagamijwe guhagarika igiciro.Uyu mwaka wonyine, ibigo byinshi, birimo BYD, Ubucukuzi bwa Zijin, Ubucukuzi bw'amabuye y'agaciro mu Bushinwa n'ibindi, byihutiye gufungura imiterere yabyo muri lithium.

Vuba aha, ukurikije igiciro cya SMM cyerekana ko igiciro giheruka cyicyuma cya lithium cyakomeje kwiyongera, guhera ku ya 15 Werurwe, igiciro cyo hagati yicyuma cya lithium cyazamutse kigera kuri miliyoni 3.134 yuan / toni, miliyoni 1.739 yuan / toni ugereranije nintangiriro y'umwaka, gushika kuri 124.66%.

Kuzamuka kw'ibikoresho fatizo nk'icyuma cya lithium nabyo bituma igiciro cyibicuruzwa nka lithium yo mu rwego rwa batiri na hydroxide yo mu rwego rwa batiri, ibikoresho nyamukuru bya batiri.Ndetse hari n'ibihuha byavugaga ko inyuma y’ibiciro bya karubone ya lithium yazamutse hejuru ya 500.000 yuan / toni, uruganda rwa batiri rwagati rwagati ni runini, inganda nyinshi za batiri zo murugo ntizigura ibicuruzwa, ntizemera amabwiriza yo kurwanya ibiciro bya karubone ya lisiyumu.Ni muri urwo rwego, Ningde Times, Eva Lithium Energy, Guoxuan-tekinoroji hamwe n’andi masosiyete akoresha batiri bavuze ko nta kibazo nk'iki, gahunda y'ibikorwa biriho ubu ni ibisanzwe, irashobora gutanga isoko ryo hasi.Na lithium iyobora uruganda Ganfeng lithium nayo yavuze ko nta ruganda rwa batiri rugura ibintu, umurongo wibikorwa urimo umusaruro wuzuye.

Usibye lisiyumu karubone, bateri yingufu nibindi biciro byingenzi nabyo biri hejuru.Ibiciro bya hydroxide ya lithium iheruka kuzamuka cyane, kwirukana hafi ya karubone ya lithium, itandukaniro ryibiciro byombi ryaragabanutse.Nk’uko ubushakashatsi bwa SMM bugaragaza ko, kungukirwa no kwiyongera kwa nikel nyinshi kuri bateri ya terefone, isabwa rya lisiyumu hydroxide ryiyongereye, uburyo rusange bwo gutanga no kubikenera buracyari mububiko, niyo mpamvu yo kuzamuka kwinshi kwa hydroxide ya lithium ibiciro.Nyamara, urebye icyiciro cya hydroxide ya lithium na lisiyumu ya karubone itandukanijwe gahoro gahoro kuburyo bugaragara, kandi vuba aha abayikora barangije kwitegura, gukurikirana cyangwa kubika zeru imwe yuzuye, isoko biteganijwe ko hydroxide ya lithium cyangwa gahoro.

Kandi hashize igihe, amakimbirane hagati yUburusiya na Ukraine yatumye izamuka rikabije ry’igiciro cya nikel, bituma igiciro cya nikel sulfate kizamuka vuba, bimaze gutwara ibiciro bitatu bibanziriza kuzamuka 12% -16%.Muri kiriya gihe, ukurikije imibare ya SMM, mu cyumweru cyo ku ya 8 Werurwe, kwiyongera kwa nikel sulfate byatumye ibiciro bya ternary byiyongera ku giciro cya 16.000-25,000 yu / toni, bihwanye n’ibiciro bya batiri ya litiro yiyongereyeho 31-47 yuan / KWh, bifata 70KWh imodoka yamashanyarazi nkurugero, ihwanye na bateri yimodoka yamashanyarazi yiyongereyeho 2000-3300 yuan muminsi hafi ibiri!

Kandi mukuzamuka gukabije kwibiciro bya nikel, nikel nyinshi ibicuruzwa bitatu igiciro cyazamutse cyane.Ukurikije ibiciro bya LME ubu bibarwa, uruganda rwumunyu kugeza igihe cyo gutanga umusaruro hagati, nikel sulfate iteganijwe kuzamuka kugera kuri 80.000 / toni, igiciro cya batiri yamagare kizamuka 7000!

Twabibutsa ko igiciro cya nikel, cobalt, lithium nibindi byuma bikomeje kwiyongera muri iki gihe, gutunganya bateri y’imyanda nabyo bigenda byiyongera mu nyanja nshya yubururu ku rugero runini.Nk’uko ibitangazamakuru bifitanye isano bibitangaza, mu Bushinwa amashanyarazi yose yatakaye muri 2020 agera kuri toni 200.000.Biteganijwe ko iyo mibare izagera kuri toni hafi miliyoni imwe mu 2025.

Tianfeng Securities mbere yerekanye ko bateri nshya yingufu zamashanyarazi ku isoko yatangiye kwinjira mugihe cyizabukuru.Biteganijwe ko mu mwaka wa 2024. Amashanyarazi ya batiri yose azagera kuri toni miliyoni 1.16.

Ku bijyanye no kwiyongera kwa lithium no kutamenya neza igiciro cya lithium, nk’uko ubushakashatsi bwabigaragaje, kuri ubu, imyifatire yo kugura imishinga itunganya ibicuruzwa ni ukugura amafaranga make, kugumana umusaruro ukenewe, no kubika ibikoresho fatizo mu gice cya kabiri ukwezi ukwezi.

Ku bijyanye n’umunyu wa cobalt, nk’uko ubushakashatsi bwabigaragaje, sulfate ya cobalt iri mu bihe bibi cyane.Ku bijyanye n'umunyu wa cobalt kuri iki gihe, ikibazo kinini gihura n’ibigo bitunganya ibicuruzwa ni ikibazo cyo kohereza ibiciro.Ku bijyanye n’ibicuruzwa byumunyu wa cobalt byiyongera kubicuruzwa bitunganyirizwa mu nganda, icyifuzo cyibikorwa byo munsi ya ternary preursor yinganda za cobalt sulfate ntabwo bikomeye nka karubone ya lithium, abakora ibicuruzwa byo hasi mubisanzwe bemera igiciro cya sulfate ya cobalt nyuma yo kwiyongera ari muke, kandi no hejuru gutunganya inganda ntizifite ikizere cyo kohereza ibiciro nyuma yo kongera igiciro cyumunyu wa cobalt.

Kandi hashize igihe, ihindagurika rikabije ryibiciro bya nikel ryanatumye inganda zitunganya ibicuruzwa zihagarika kugura injyana ya scrap, ibyo bikaba byaragize ingaruka zikomeye kubiciro byinganda zitunganya.Kugirango duhangane n'izamuka ridasanzwe ry'ibiciro nk'ibi, ibigo bitunganya ibicuruzwa muri kiriya gihe byahisemo imyifatire yo gutegereza-kureba by'agateganyo kandi bitegura gutegura gahunda yo kugura nyuma yuko igiciro cya nikel kigabanutse ku giciro gihamye.


Igihe cyo kohereza: Apr-18-2022